guide to referencing books for academic dissertations.
YOU NEED A BIBLIOGRAPHY
must include a bibliography along with the written research findings.
A bibliography contains a list of books used during the research for the
Books you quote from
in your dissertation must always be included in your bibliography.
A bibliography is placed at the end of your dissertation, after the body
text when it is finally bound.
A bibliography can
be found at the end of most non fiction books.
Bibliographies also exist in CD ROM form.
A bibliography is
arranged alphabetically by author's surname.
Every book referred to in the body text, citations or notes should have
an entry in the bibliography.
Bibliographic references should include the name of the Author, the Title,
the Place of Publication, the Publisher and the Date of Publication. All
of this information can be found at the beginning of a book after the
flyleaf. For example Graham Clarke's book The Photograph.
Author = Graham
Title = The Photograph
Place of Publication = Oxford
Publisher =Oxford University Press
Year of Publication =1997
Which can be referenced
in the bibliography in the following way
G. The Photograph (Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1997)
When listed in your bibliography the book title can be given emphasis
using an italic font.
When you are citing quotations in your dissertation you must include a
reference to the quotation. Your reference will allow any other researcher
to easily locate the passage you have referred to.
For example you quote a passage from page 23 of Robert Clarke's book The
Photograph which was published in Oxford; by Oxford University Press in
1. Because you have referred to this book it must be listed in
The format for presentation in your bibliography would be:
Clarke R. The Photograph (Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1997)
note the use of rounded
brackets to include publication details.
2. There must be a reference in your body text, next to the actual
quotation, which in a short hand form refers to the book which you have
previously listed in your bibliography.
The reference, in its short hand form uses a consistent format for the
presentation of specific details about the passage you have quoted. There
a number of formats to reference citations, but the one we will all use
for this module is the Harvard System of citation reference, this format
also includes the page number
Using the example of your quotation of a passage on page 23 of Robert
Clarke's 1997 book The Photograph
Your reference in the body of your text would be written, directly after
the quotation itself as
"blah blah blah." (Clarke 1997, p.23)
This refers to page 23 of a 1997 publication by Clarke which can be found
in your bibliography. There may be references to other books by Graham
Clarke in your bibliography which is why including the year is important;
it is unlikely that an author publishes more than one book a year.
may also include footnotes.
A footnote allows the writer to develop an argument without digressing
to explain facts, which while essential to the argument, may or may not
be known by the reader.
Footnotes should be
numbered sequentially and enclosed in square brackets e.g.  as required.
Footnotes should be listed at the end of your dissertation, but before
For further examples of the use of footnotes and a bibliography see my
Gustave le Gray and Roger Fenton as
models for 19th Century Practice