History of Photography

H of P Seminars
Critical Studies
E. Chambre Hardman


Critical Studies


4. Documents from the Avant-Garde

Constructivism The Russian Malevich's painting on canvas White on White (1918) revolutionised painting. In 1928 Alexander Rodchenko writes about "the view from the navel". Lazlo Maholy Nagy - a European constructivist & modernist is the most conspicuous teacher at The Bauhaus where he writes his Painting, Photography, Film. (1925) the Nazis force his emigration to the USA where he is influential at the Art Institute of Chicago

From 1916 onwards Dada, Surrealism & Constructivism have political leanings DADA The Inventors of montage : John Heartfield, Josef Grosz and Hanna Hoch.

Futurism in IItaly - poet/painter - Marinetti and the photographer Luigi Balla. Unlike Constructivism their is no revolutionary content in Futurism except fascism. An offshoot of Futurism in England called the Vorticists encouraged the Alvin Coburn an Anglo American photographer to explore double exposures and combination printing not with the idea of obtaining a homegenous picture but a "simultaneus one"

Consider also the new movements in painting Neo-Impressionism, Expressionism, Les Fauves Paul Cezanne in France influences Expressionism in Germany

Surrealism :For the surrealists anything could be made replete with significance by the straightforward practice of removing it from familiar surroundings and recontextualising it. Simon Marsden

Marcel Duchamp's "Ettant donner" - a reference to photography ? Man Ray worked with Brassai, Brandt was assistant to Man Ray The Hungarian Andre Kertesz moves to Paris Surrealist magazine purchase and use Atget's "document" L' Eclipse, Avril 1912

Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) August Sander and "object photographers" begin still life & advertising photography Albert Renger Patzch "The World is Beautiful" (1928) Compare Neue Sachlichkeit with Edward Weston & The f 64 Group in the USA


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